What is a normal heart rate?

What is a normal heart rate?


Deconstructing the myth that the normal range for the resting heart rate is 60-100.


Maximum predicted HR:
Robergs R, Landwehr R. The surprising history of the “HRmax = 200-age” equation. Journal of Exercise Physiology online. 2002; 5:1-10.

Fetal HR:
DuBose TJ. Embryonic heart rates. Fertil Steril. 2009; 92:e57.

Evidence for normal heart rate range:
Mason JW, et al. Electrocardiographic reference ranges derived from 79,743 ambulatory subjects. J Electrocardiol. 2007; 40:228-34.

Survey of cardiologists about defining normal sinus rhythm:
Spodick DH. Survey of selected cardiologists for an operational definition of normal sinus heart rate. Am J Cardiol. 1993; 72:487-8.

History of “normal sinus rhythm”:
Dolgin M. Normal sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71:496-7.

Kossmann CE. The normal electrocardiogram. Circulation. 1953;920-36.

Spodick DH. Is there such a thing as normal sinus rate? Br Heart J. 1993;486-7.

HR and mortality following a myocardial infarction:
Hjalmarson A, et al. Influence of heart rate on mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:547-53.

HR and mortality among all adults:
Aladin A, et al. Relation of resting heart rate to risk for all-cause mortality by gender after considering exercise capacity (the Henry Ford exercise testing project). Am J Cardiol. 2014; 114:1701-6.

General background on the topic of normal HRs:
Spodick DH. Redefinition of normal sinus heart rate. Chest. 1993; 104:939-41.

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